Understanding Sexual Arousal, Discrediting the Notion of a Sexual Orientation and Introducing Proactive Erection Syndrome
[Click here to download this dissertation, in pdf.]
The notion of a sexual orientation is rebuked and replaced with an alternative understanding of sexuality, characterized by the notion of a proactive erection.
Homosexuality, socially and politically, has acquired the acceptance necessary for the revision of long held child adoption and marriage laws.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Scientifically, however, homosexuality has remained anomalous largely due to its irreconcilability with Darwinian evolutionary theory.8, 9 Hence, sexual arousal and sexuality are re-explored so as to animadvert the assumptions which foment the notion of a sexual orientation. Additionally, the notion of a proactive erection is introduced and applied to formulate a maturer understanding of sexuality.
Sexual orientation, the label which defines an individual as either being: heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual, has failed to harmonize with contemporary science by exhibiting the peculiarities of: dysfunctionality, variability, and objectionability. Exploration of the aforementioned, will expose the outmoded assumptions and the associated faults on which the notion of sexual orientation rests and implicitly promotes. Additionally, sexual arousal is reviewed from its instinctual origins to its conscious interpretation, so as to provide a new basis for understanding sexuality.
Foremostly, the sexual orientational element of homosexuality projects dysfunctionality at the: evolutional, medical, and social levels. Evolutionally, to clarify, homosexuality cannot be hereditarily sustained because [true] homosexuals do not engage in coitus and therefore, are incapable of reproducing by natural means. Accordingly, therefore, the apparent persistence of homosexuality defies Darwin’s law of Sexual Selection which ascribes biological traits as being inherited from biological parents.10 This incongruity, given Darwin was not incorrect, effectively negates the credibility of the existence of a sexual orientation while presupposing an alternative interpretation of “homosexual” phenomena. A new interpretation, as such, must explain why “homosexuals” can be medically described as psychologically healthy despite being at greater risk of contracting oral or anal cancers – if engaging in: fellatio, cunnilingus, anilingus or sodomy.11, 12, 13, 14, 15 Additionally, such a new interpretation of sexuality must decisively explain the causation of the (arguably) higher incidences of social friction observed in the homosexual community, as typically characterized by violence and abusive relationships, when contrasted with the heterosexual community.16, 17, 18, a The aforesaid, to clarify, were believed to be attributed to the stigmatization of homosexuals until more recent research cast doubt on all such hypotheses, by revealing that the long-term normalization of homosexual relationships and noncoital sexual interaction, had failed to remedy the relatively high levels of anxiety suffered by homosexuals.19 Effectively, therefore, an alternative understanding of sexual arousal is warranted by Darwinian evolutionary theory and motivated by the inability to explain why apparently psychologically sound individuals commit to habits detrimental to physiological and societal well-being.
Psychologically healthy individuals who, as previously described, quadrate with the logic of sexual orientation inadvertently advocate the outmoded concept of instinctual infallibility. Deliberately justifying the homosexual cause, to exemplify, by analogizing with apparently homosexual encounters in the animal kingdom undermines observations which demonstrate the vulnerable nature of instinct.8, 20 Mature male jewel beetles, to demonstrate, have been observed while mistakenly copulating with brown glass beer bottles; which instinctually register as mature females.21, 22 Accidentally confusing human litter for a procreative opportunity, as such, highlights instinctual susceptibility to environmental misinterpretation.b Accordingly, all such misinterpretations will be described as episodes of instinctual misfiring, from here after. Moving on, emphatically illustrating instinctual misfiring has been laboratorially demonstrated with the observation of male butterflies attempting to copulate with equivalent [non-living] cardboard females – even in the abundance of living females.23 Notably, however, the artificial females exhibited deliberately accentuated sexual ornaments which manifested as the more desirable trait to the males. Inferably, therefore, [sexual] instinctual misfiring is actualized by sensual reception of pseudo-sexual ornaments with an inclination to accentuation. Analogously, therefore, erections attributed to the sensing of a cross-dressed member of the same gender (as the aroused) can be interpreted as episodes of instinctual misfiring rather than instances of “homosexual attraction”. Societal recognition of such instinctual misinterpretation, is (arguably and) indirectly emphasized at “gay pride” [or LGBTQ] parades,24 where cross-dressed men typically emphasize feminine traits while cross-dressed women typically emphasize masculine traits.25 Voluptuously teasing instinct, therefore, does not confirm the existence of a homosexual identity but rather exposes instinctual vulnerability.
Empirically justifying homosexuality, to progress, with phenomena complementary to bouts of instinctual misfiring, implicitly and incorrectly equates sexual arousal with sexual attraction.26, 27 Admonition of this assumption is reified by reflection of anxiety induced sexual arousal – regardless of the presence (or lack) of a potential sexual partner.28, 29 Validation of anxiously motivated sexual arousal is not merely limited to the laboratory but evidently manifests among livestock, fearing certain death in the abattoir.30 Deducibly, therefore, sexual stimulation may educe from instinctual apprehension of mortal affliction. Consequently, the ascertainment of the evolutional motivation for “homosexual attraction” is preempted with deliberation of “homosexual attraction” as a misconstrued occurrence of anxiety induced sexual arousal. Adduction of the latter is attained by exploration of the correlation between the psyche and sexual orientation,31, 32, 19 with attention to the peculiarity of orientational variability.33, 34 The aforesaid, for clarification, asserts an individual may naturally transmute between the: heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual orientations.35 Pertinently, candid “homosexuals” typically exhibit low self-esteem and self-image, undoubtedly attributed to perceived personal inferiority, when juxtaposed with members of the same gender.36, 19 Sexual competition, therefore, may coerce an erection in apprehensive individuals, akin to inescapable mortal affliction. Consequently, therefore, sexual orientational variability elucidates as misread fluctuations of the natural ego while erratic erections, ostensibly impute to an anxious anima and not to the ill-conceived concept of sexual orientation.
Finally, objection to homosexual intercourse is encouraged naturally and reaffirmed artificially. Evolutional ratification of natural objection is demonstrated in mature male bed bugs, which release male repelling pheromones to prevent male-male mounting.37 Laboratorial verification of such pheromones was achieved by observation of significantly higher incidences of male-male mountings after deliberate obstruction of the associated pheromone glands. Consequently, the mounted males typically exhibited abdominal damage due to being penetrated by males who had lost their ability to distinguish between mature males and females. Hence, the release of such pheromones can be described as an evolutional rectification of instinctual misfiring. Similarly, the perianal signalling demonstrated by an estral gelada monkey, is typically responded with a breast inspection from interested males.38, 39 Copulation typically follows only after the inspecting male confirms his subject exhibits swollen breasts; the rectifying indicator of an estrous female. In this way, maximization of reproductive success is attained by minimization of male-male and male-nonestral female copulation. Regarding humanity, evolutional rectification manifests in the conscious formulation of faith and science. Demonstrably, noncoital intercourse is often: proscribed by major world religions,40, 41 nullified by modern evolutionary theory,8 and exhorted by medical practitioners.15 Moreover, conscious awareness may have been partly motivated by the evolutionary drive to supersede instinctually governed methods of rectification. Deducibly, therefore, apperception has conduced toward the recognition and rationalization of sexual stimulators and sexual suppressors, such as: stress, guilt, fatigue, sexual apprehension and intoxication,42, 43, 44, 45 for the realization of evolutional rectification and the abandonment of sexual orientational categorization.
Sexual arousal, therefore, is influenced by the interrelated elements of: sexual stimulators, sexual suppressors and the state of the ego. Additionally, instinctual and apperceptive perception of procreative opportunities, exhibit evolutional rectification for the maximization of reproductive success and the minimization of injury. Hence, the co identities pertaining to: heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality, are manifested as the product of conscious misinterpretation of natural phenomena.
Determination of the Evolutional Motivation for Anxiety Induced Sexual Arousal and an Introduction to Proactive Erections
Sexual arousal is axiomatically motivated by the instinctual persistence to preserve life through procreation. Accordingly, therefore, the evolutional motivation for anxiety induced sexual arousal is the encouragement of copulation for the facilitation of procreation. Justification of the aforesaid proposition, is ensuingly presented through discussion pertaining to the evolutional advantage of sexual arousal attributed to imminent inescapable mortal affliction and sexual competition.
Erections experienced in the context of mortal affliction serve to preserve populations threatened by imminent and inescapable disaster. Prospective preservation, as such, is achieved by urgent incidences of copulation, motivated by the instinctual presumption that desolation does not necessarily eventuate to total termination of a population. Impregnated survivors, therefore, maximize population survival chances by boosting birth rates, soon after mass fatality. Apprehensively activated erections, therefore, advantage populations by implicitly proposing procreation as a proactive measure against anticipated annihilation. Appropriately, such erections are described as proactive (from here after) because of the presentimental contexts in which such arousal occurs. Moreover, proactive erections benefit the anxious individual by prompting procreation for the propagation of personal genetics. Preservation of a genetic legacy, therefore, is the driving force and evolutional advantage of proactive sexual arousal.
Comparatively, erections induced by the recognition of sexual competition, intimate proactive arousal in the light of instinctual fixation and anxiety induced sexual arousal. Clinical investigations, for elaboration, demonstrate the masculine disposition to survey women’s breasts and waist-to-hip ratio when seeking coition;46, 47 reminiscent of mature male gelada monkeys. Correspondingly, aroused women exhibit tumefied breasts;45, 48 analogous to estral female gelada monkeys. Deducibly, therefore, womanly breast swelling functioned to allure primeval men for coitus, in an era characterized by women who exhibited relatively flat chests when unaroused.49, 50 Thus, an au naturel and aroused woman would have outmatched her accompanying and unaroused competitors, when perused by primitive men. Equivalently, in men, such erections would have been advantageous, given the feminine inclination to initially fixate on men’s penises.51 Inferably, therefore, competition induced erections evolved to purport the sexual preeminence of diffident primal men and women.
Alas, evolution rendered proactive sexual arousal redundant and consequently misinterpreted by the consciously aware human. Effectively, the natural emergence of prominently-breasted women reduced the significance of erectile breast swelling by instinctually suggesting such a new breed of women exhibited perpetual arousal and therefore, perpetual fertility.50 Consequently, therefore, the seductive advantage offered by proactively aroused tumefied breasts in a community of flat chested women, was lost to the enticing efficacy of permanently protuberant breasts. Eventually, sexual selection favored the progeny of such conspicuously breasted women;52 who, in turn, artificially maximized seductive competence with the development and implementation of body adornments, such as: body paint,53 clothing,54 and breast padding.55, c Similarly, in men, clothing eventually obscured the penis and therefore, any experienced proactive erections; which undoubtedly were priorly obsoleted by the growing feminine preference for men with more than merely a functional libido.56, 57 Contextually, therefore, the prolonged redundancy of proactively induced erections together with the eventual artificial association of conjugal affection and copulation,58 deducibly eventuated to the conscious reevaluation and misinterpretation of proactive sexual arousal as an indicator of sexual inclination or “orientation”.
All counts of sexual arousal, therefore, are fundamentally motivated by the instinctual priority to preserve life through procreation. Proactive erections in people, however, were eventually obsoleted by anatomical and cultural evolution; which effectively eventuated to the conscious formulation of sexual orientations.
The Erection Tree: a New Model of Sexuality
All counts of sexual arousal, as described earlier, are stimulated by perceived procreative opportunities and suppressed by factors such as: poor health, intoxication, stress, anxiety, fatigue, anti-copulatory pheromones, and (arguably) conditional motivators.59, 60 Accordingly, therefore, every erectile episode can be mapped on an erection-suppression continuum with the midpoint representing rest or total cancellation of stimulation and suppression. Practically, this erection-suppression continuum serves as the basis of a new sexuality model, described here after as the Erection Tree.
Constituently, the Erection Tree model of sexuality is the aforesaid continuum, with each end branched into a list of relevant actuators; hence the name. The suppressive extreme, therefore, is derived from any one or a combination of the previously mentioned suppressors. Correspondingly, the erectile extreme is derived from the instinctual recognition or anticipation of a procreative opportunity, with the instinctual response respectively described as either opportunistic or proactive, from here after. Consequently, instinctual fallibility necessitates the erectile extreme as being the direct product of either instinctual misfiring and/or the complementary, on-target identification. Further, both on-target and misfiring erections can be described as being either (of the aforesaid) opportunistic or (complementary) proactive reactions to sexual stimuli. Furthermore, proactive erections can be categorized as either: periodic, conditional, or anxious – as already detailed. Periodic erections, for elaboration, account for the typical perianal swelling and release of attractor pheromones observed in estral females.61 Such periodicity asserts proactiveness by highlighting how the estral female instinctually anticipates the presence of a local male who will reciprocate to her attracting agents. Finally, conditioned proactive erections are attributed to acquired behavior, as exemplified by classical (Pavlovian) conditioning.62 Perceptively, application of this delineated model [see Figure A] may explain every erectile episode experienced by any sexual creature; as suggested in the following section.
Application of the Erection Tree to Commonly Observed Erectile Experiences
Exploration of the following scenarios, specifically regarding erectile and suppressive actuators, demonstrates the applicability and practicality of the Erection Tree as a superior sexuality model.
Scenario 1: reception of nudity and/or prurient imagery
Inferably, erections activated by visual reception of nudity or prurient imagery are instinctually interpreted as either a procreative opportunity, or warning of imminent copulatory competition. Hence, all such erections are classified as opportunistic, if the stimulus is instinctually perceived as a mature member of the opposite gender; or classified as proactive and competitive, if the stimulus is instinctually perceived as a mature member of the same gender [as the on-looking aroused]. Moreover, such erectile episodes are classified as on-target when the stimuli are real and living subjects being observed in real-life, as opposed to on video or in print; which would be classified as misfiring bouts of sexual arousal. Additionally, any number of suppressive actuators, as described earlier, may prevent the eventuation of an opportunistic erection. Failure, however, to achieve competitively motivated proactive erections is attributed to the lack of specific anxiety necessary for initiating such erections.
Applicably, therefore, subjects aroused by visually erotic material are considered momentarily biased toward the erectile extreme of the Erection Tree. Unaroused subjects, however, are considered either momentarily biased toward the suppressive extreme, if presented with a procreative opportunity; or at sexual rest, if unaffected by the presence of a sexual competitor.
Scenario 2: perception of mortal vulnerability
Aggressively acquired arousal, as apparently experienced in: prison, the battlefield, military barracks, during bondage style foreplay or similar, is typically classified as proactive and anxiously motivated. Circumstantially, instinct identifies imminent ineluctable danger and accordingly responds with urgent erections to entice copulation for the personal preservation of DNA. Correspondingly, absent arousals are attributed to either insignificant levels of vulnerably induced anxiety or hyperarousal (fight-or-flight response); if instinct immediately identifies either an opening from which an escape can be made or an attackable vulnerability in the antagonising agent. Deductively, therefore, sexual arousal attributed to danger indicates momentary bias toward the erectile extreme of the Erection Tree while an equivalent non-arousal indicates either sexual rest or bias toward the suppressive extreme.
Scenario 3: sexually significant settings
Erections executed on arrival of specific settings are classified as proactive and conditional because of the sexual connection which must be initially established between the anima and such settings. Thus, the: bed, brothel, bath, shower or any other setting may serve as a sexual stimulator after being subconsciously associated with sexual intercourse.
Further, such proactive episodes are classified as either on-target, if the setting also features a mature member of the opposite gender [of the aroused], or misfiring if the opportunity to procreate is absent or only imagined.
Scenario 4: reception of instinctually abstract stimuli
Finally, sexual arousal attained from the reception of instinctually abstract stimuli, such as: poetry, music, language, and symbols are classified as either proactive and conditional and/or opportunistic. Proactive and conditional cases, to elaborate, function as described previously whereby erotic connotations must be attributed to settings or items before acquiring instinctual sexual significance. Opportunistic cases, however, account for episodes of arousal evoked from the visualization of nudity or prurient imagery attained from the conscious and arguably subconscious interpretation of abstract material. Pertinently, therefore, romantic and intimate conversations evoke erections in subjects accustomed to the progression of sexual intercourse from such interpersonal interactions.
Further, such erections are classified as either on-target, when experienced in the presence of a mature member of the opposite gender of the aroused; or misfiring, when experienced in the absence of such a procreative opportunity or if such an opportunity is only imagined.
Notably, the four scenarios presented constitute only a summary of erectile and suppressive contexts. Consequently, therefore, concerned subjects may not necessarily find their erectile experiences completely conformed to the scenarios presented and so would benefit by referring directly back to the Erection Tree, so as to derive the causation of their erections or suppressions from first principles.
Reflection upon the Erection Tree and the previously presented scenarios illuminated the “homosexual” as an individual who merely suffers from suppressed opportunistic erections and experiences persistent proactive erections; referred to as Proactive Erection Syndrome (PES), from here after. Inferably, therefore, such individuals typically become subconsciously apprehensive when instinctually aware of a local sexual competitor; unless such a response has already become desensitized due to conditioning.63, 64 Consequently, such competitively induced erections can be alleviated by addressing the causation of negative self-esteem and self-image, as inadvertently demonstrated in the controversial “reorientation” projects of: Spitzer, Karten and Nicolosi.34, 65, 66 “Sexual reorientation”, to clarify, is a misnomer because “sexual orientation” is a mere misconception of PES. Progressively, strengthened self-esteem and self-image improve self-confidence which effectively reduces sexual suppression actuated from performance anxiety and depression;19 a symptom common among “homosexuals”. Additionally, improved confidence reduces anxiety attributed to the recognition of sexual competition and therefore, reduces the onset of PES. Homosexuality, therefore, is a mistranslation of sexual phenomena pertaining to Proactive Erection Syndrome.
Reaffirmation of the link between weak self-image and competitively attributed PES, as previously described, is realized by reviewing the common health concerns of individuals who identify themselves as members of the LGBTQ community. Specifically, anorexia and bulimia are typically suffered by members of the LGBTQ community and are indicative of an obsessively unhealthy self-image.67, 68 Further reaffirmation is inadvertently demonstrated with observations identifying “lesbian attraction” as typically being initially experienced after the age of thirty (years);33 proximately the age when facial wrinkles first appear.69 Additionally, many obstetricians recommend women wanting children, initially conceive before the age of thirty years; for the health sake of both the mother and her children.70, 71 Thus, such episodes of “lesbian attraction” bear more logically as instinctual warnings of a “ticking” biological clock and therefore, a reduced competitive capacity against younger women. PES, therefore, is potentially indicative of a poor self-image and so effectively warns the conscious of a personal deficiency.
Alas, the modern marginalization of the LGBTQ community rests on the scientific ignorance of contemporary society. Reconciliation, however, can be achieved by acknowledging that there is no such thing as a: heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual but rather, any psychologically healthy individual may experience PES when in a state of dangerously low self-image. Thus, the conscientious community can capably heal society by reassuring the naturalness of PES while accordingly addressing all its actuators. Failure to act as described, however, will ensure continued societal fragmentation and destruction from the social friction exhibited by “homosexuals”. Such friction undoubtedly emanates from the depression caused by the conscious misunderstanding of instinct; which naturally opposes “homosexual intercourse” by invoking sadistic homosexual fantasies in sufferers of PES.72 Deducibly, therefore, violence towards sexual competitors, as observed in the LGBTQ community, is instinctually compelled so as to minimize procreative competition for the maximization of personal coital encounters and therefore, personal reproductive success.d
Finally, the ultimate cost of ignoring a maturer translation of instinctual impulses is a needlessly burdened medical and welfare system and worse still, casualties of depression. Medically, to elaborate, time and resources would be lost to “homosexuals” seeking IVF, despite such patients having perfectly healthy bodies urging to reproduce. Additionally, anal stitching and treatment for anal and oral cancers can be minimized by cautioning against: fellatio, cunnilingus, anilingus and sodomy. Depression, to progress, passed off as a consequence of “homosexual stigmatization” rather than PES, dangerously ignores the potential consequence of a low self-image, such as eating disorders, anti-social behavior and eventually suicide.73, 74, 75 Applicably, the apparent rise in “homosexual” individuals may be influenced by the undeniable rise in sexual media, which inadvertently idealizes carnally unrealistic role-models who induce feelings of sexual inferiority among impressionable viewers;76, 77, 78, 79, 80 who are then left to comprehend their instinctual impulses, in light of the contemporary belief of sexual orientation. Thus, minimising the incidence of PES and any accompanying confusion may be realized by reassuring the self-worth of impressionable individuals, especially in light of media based archetypes.
Reconciling the differences between: heterosexuals, bisexuals, and homosexuals, therefore, will only be realized by acknowledging that no individual can ever be sensibly categorized as such. Additionally, maintaining such a system of categorization effectively ignores the potentially dangerous consequences of a negative self-image.
“Homosexual attraction”, therefore, is merely a misinterpretation of either instinctual misfiring or Proactive Erection Syndrome (PES). Accordingly, therefore, no sexual creature is: heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual but instead, every sexual creature is instinctually compelled to copulate or spawn so as to procreate for the legacy known as life.
aThe main problem with these surveys is the small sample size. This does not mean, however, such data can be discarded.
bEnvironmental misinterpretation is not restricted to an individual’s sexual sense but also manifests in the remaining senses, as exemplified by the: McGurk Effect, Shepard tone, and the cutaneous rabbit illusion.
cThis art form, in the modern era, continues in the form of elective cosmetic surgery.
dViolence towards sexual competitors is not uncommon among creatures which apparently rely more heavily on instinct, such as cocks and bucks.
1A. Avery, J. Chase, L. Johansson, S. Litvak, D. Montero, M. Wydra, ‘America’s Changing Attitudes toward Homosexuality, Civil Unions, and Same-Gender Marriage: 1977–2004’, Social Work, vol. 52(1), 2007, pp. 71-79.
2 ‘Gay-Events Timeline, 1970-1999’,in SOIN Sexual Orientation Issues in the News, Internet, http://www.usc.edu/schools/annenberg/asc/projects/soin/enhancingCurricula/timeline.html, (30 June 2014).
3 ‘Adoption Amendment (Same Sex Couples) Bill 2010 (No 2)’, in Parliament of New South Wales, September 2010, Internet, http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/PARLMENT/nswbills.nsf/1d436d3c74a9e047ca256e690001d75b/c880c71088caf993ca257791001ea04d?OpenDocument, (30 June 2014).
4 ‘Gay Adoption’, in Love and Pride, Internet,
http://www.loveandpride.com/informationcenter/tips.aspx?categoryid=7, (30 June 2014).
5 ‘Countries That Allow Same-Sex Adoption’, in LifeTips, Move Up the Line, Internet, http://gaymarriage.lifetips.com/tip/125020/gay-adoption/gay-adoption/countries-that-allow-same-sex-adoption.html, (30 June 2014).
6 ‘Pride and Prejudice: An Interactive Timeline of the Fight for Gay Rights‘, in TIME, Internet, http://nation.time.com/2013/03/26/pride-and-prejudice-an-interactive-timeline-of-the-fight-for-gay-rights/, (30 June 2014).
7 ‘TIMELINESame-sex marriage around the world, from criminal prosecutions to legal unions’, in CBC News, Jun 2011, Internet, http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2009/05/26/f-same-sex-timeline.html, (30 June 2014).
8 J. Roughgarden, Evolution’s Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People, University of California Press, Los Angeles, 2004, pp. 171-172, 153-155.
9 J. McKnight, Straight Science?: Homosexuality, Evolution and Adaptation, Routledge, London, 1997, pp. x, 1.
10 C. Darwin, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1860, pp. 83-85.
11 ‘Being Gay is Just as Healthy as Being Straight’ in American Psychological Association, Internet, http://www.apa.org/research/action/gay.aspx, (27 July, 2013).
12 G. D’Souza, A.R. Kreimer, R. Viscidi, M. Pawlita, C. Fakhry, W.M. Koch, W.H. Westra, M.L. Gillison, ‘Case–Control Study of Human Papillomavirus and Oropharyngeal Cancer’, The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 356(19), May 2007, pp. 1944-1956.
13G. D’Souza, Y. Agrawal, J. Halpern, S. Bodison, M.L. Gillison, ‘Oral Sexual Behaviors Associated with
Prevalent Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection‘, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 199(9), May 2009, pp. 1263-1269.
14P.V. Chin-Hong, E. Vittinghoff, R.D. Cranston, L. Browne, S. Buchbinder, G. Colfax, M. Da Costa, T. Darragh, D.J. Benet, F. Judson, B. Koblin, K.H. Mayer, J.M. Palefsky, ‘Age-Related Prevalence of Anal Cancer Precursors in Homosexual Men: The EXPLORE Study’, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 97(12), June 2005, pp. 896-905.
15 ‘Anal Cancer’ in American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons, 2008, Internet, http://www.fascrs.org/patients/conditions/anal_cancer/, (30 June 2014).
16 S. Gentlewarrier & G.Y. Lie, ‘Intimate Violence in Lesbian Relationships: Discussion of Survey Findings and Practice Implications’, Journal of Social Service Research, vol. 15, 1991, pp. 41-59.
17 J. Ristock, ‘And Justice for All?…The Social Context of Legal Responses to Abuse in Lesbian Relationships’, Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, vol. 7, 1994, p. 420.
18 ‘Measuring Violence Against Women, Statistical Trends 2006’ in Statistics Canada, Internet, http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-570-x/85-570-x2006001-eng.pdf, (30 June 2014).
19 T.G. Sandfort, R. de Graaf, R.V. Bijl, & P. Schnabel, ‘Same-sex sexual behavior and psychiatric disorders: findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS)’, Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 58, 2001, pp. 85-91.
20 B. Bagemihl, Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity, St. Martin’s Press, 1999.
21 T.J. Hawkeswood, ‘Review of the biology and host-plants of the Australian jewel beetle Julodimorpha Bakewilli (White, 1859)(Coleoptera: Buprestidae)’, Calodema, vol. 3, 2003, pp. 3-5.
22 ‘Beetles bottle up sex drive’, in news.com.au, December 2010, Internet, http://www.news.com.au/national/beetles-bottle-up-sex-drive/story-e6frfkvr-1225973976000, (30 June 2014).
23 N. Tinbergen, The Study of Instinct, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1951.
24 S.-P. Regis, ‘Gay Pride Month 2011: How You Can Take Part’, in MTV act, June 2011, Internet, http://act.mtv.com/posts/why-gay-pride-month-is-revolutionary-and-how-you-can-take-part/, (30 June 2014).
25 ‘Gay Pride Maspalomas 2011 Main Stage – Gala of the Drag Queen’ in Gay Maspalomas.com, 2011, Internet, http://www.gaymaspalomas.com/gay-pride-maspalomas-2011/gay-pride-maspalomas-2011-main-stage-gala-of-the-drag-queen-id164.html, (30 June 2014).
26 ‘Biological Causes of Same-sex Attraction’ in SameSexAttraction.org, 2008, Internet, http://www.samesexattraction.org/biological-causes-homosexuality.htm, (30 June 2014).
27H.M. Bos, T.G. Sandfort, E.H. de Bruyn, E.M. Hakvoort, ‘Same-sex attraction, social relationships, psychosocial functioning, and school performance in early adolescence.’, Developmental Psychology, vol. 44(1), Jan 2008, pp. 59-68.
28 D. Barlow, D. Sakheim, J. Beck, ‘Anxiety increases sexual arousal’, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 92(1), February 1983, pp. 49-54.
29 D. Dutton & A. Aron, ‘Some Evidence for Heightened Sexual Attraction Under Conditions of High Anxiety’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 30(4), 1974, pp. 510-517.
30 L. Bartoš & J. Holečková, ‘Exciting ungulates: male-male mounting in fallow, white-tailed and red deer’, Homosexual Behaviour in Animals, An Evolutionary Perspective, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 2006, p. 156.
31 D. M. Fergusson, ‘Sexual orientation of and mental health in a birth cohort of young adults.’, Psychological Medicine, vol. 35, 2005, pp. 971-981.
32 S. Cochran, V. Mays, M. Alegria, A. N. Ortega, D. Takeuchi, ‘Mental health and substance use disorders among Latino and Asian American lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults.’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 75(5), October 2007, pp. 785-794.
33 C. S. Moran, ‘Mid-Life Sexuality Transitions in Women – a Queer Qualitative Study’, southernct.edu, 2008, Internet, https://www.southernct.edu/womensstudies/uploads/textWidget/wysiwyg/documents/WomensSexualityThesis.pdf, (30 June 2014).
34 R. Spitzer, ‘Can Some Gay Men and Lesbians Change Their Sexual Orientation? 200 Participants Reporting a Change from Homosexual to Heterosexual Orientation’, Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol. 32 (5), 2003, pp. 403-417.
35 L.M. Diamond, Sexual Fluidity: Understanding Women’s Love and Desire, Harvard University Press, U.S.A., 2008, pp. 137-170.
36 J. Nicolosi, H. N. Maloney, R. Perloff, Shame and Attachment Loss: The Practical Work of Reparative Therapy, InterVarsity Press, Illonois, 2009, pp. 57-85.
37 C. Ryne, ‘Homosexual interactions in bed bugs: alarm pheromones as male recognition signals’, Animal Behaviour, vol. 78(6), December 2009, pp. 1471-1475.
38 D. Morris, The Naked Ape: a zoologist’s study of the human animal, Bantam Books, Canada, 1967, pp. 64-68.
39 L. H. Matthews, ‘The sexual skin of the Gelada Baboon (Theropithecus gelada)’, The Zoological Society of London, vol. 28(7), September 1956, pp. 543-552.
40 ‘Religious Views on Homosexuality: Comparison Chart’, in Religion Facts, October 2005, Internet, http://www.religionfacts.com/homosexuality/comparison_chart.htm, (30 June 2014).
41 J.S. Siker, Homosexuality And Religion: An Encyclopedia, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, 2007.
42 A. Bradford & C. Meston, ‘The impact of anxiety on sexual arousal in women’, Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 44, 2006, pp. 1067-1077.
43 ‘Performance Anxiety’ in Sexual Health Australia, Internet, http://www.sexualhealthaustralia.com.au/page/performance_anxiety.html, (30 June 2014).
44 D. H. Barlow, ‘Causes of sexual dysfunction: the role of anxiety and cognitive interference’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 54, 1986, pp. 140-148.
45 A. Stanway, The Lover’s Guide: The art of better love making, Pan Macmillan Publishers, Sydney, 1992, pp. 13, 59-61, 92-95, 27-29.
46 B. J. Dixon, G. M. Grimshaw, W. L. Linklater, A. F. Dixon, ‘Eye-Tracking of Men’s Preferences for Waist-to-Hip Ratio and Breast Size of Women’, Archives of Sexual Behaviour, vol. 40(1), 2009, pp. 43-50.
47 J. C. Confer, C. Perilloux, D. M. Buss, ‘More than just a pretty face: men’s priority shifts toward bodily attractiveness in short-term versus long-term mating contexts’, Evolution & Human Behavior, vol. 31(5), September 2010, pp. 348-353.
48 D. Milligan, J. O. Drife, R. V. Short, ‘Changes in breast volume during normal menstrual cycle and after oral contraceptives’, British Medical Journal, vol. 4, 1975, pp. 494-496.
49 J. G. H. Cant, ‘Hypothesis for the evolution of human breasts and buttocks’, American Naturalist, vol. 117, 1981, pp. 199-204.
50 G. G. Gallup Jr, ‘Permanent breast enlargement in human females: a sociobiological analysis’ Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 11(7), November 1982, pp. 597-601.
51 H. A. Rupp, K. Wallen, ‘Sex differences in viewing sexual stimuli: An eye-tracking study in men and women’, Hormones and Behavior, vol. 51(4), April 2007, pp. 524-533.
52 A. P. Møller, M. Soler, R. Thornhill, ‘Breast asymmetry, sexual selection, and human reproductive success’, Ethology and Sociobiology, vol. 16(3), May 1995, pp. 207-219.
53 C. Knight, Blood relations: menstruation and the origins of culture, Antony Rowe Ltd, Eastbourne, 1995, p. vii.
54 L. W. Rabine, ‘Not a Mere Ornament: Tradition, Modernity, and Colonialism in Kenyan and Western Clothing’, Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture, vol. 1(2), May 1997, pp. 145-167.
55 K. A. Hamlin, Beyond Adam’s rib: How Darwinian evolutionary theory redefined gender and Influenced American Feminist Thought, 1870–1920, ProQuest, 2007, pp.225-226.
56 D. M. Buss, The evolution of desire: Strategies of human mating, Basic Books, New York, 1994.
57 K. Gerson, ‘What do women want from men? Men’s influence on women’s work and family choices’, American Behavioral Scientist, vol. 29(5), May-June 1986, pp. 619-634.
58 C. Ryan, C. Jethá, Sex at Dawn: The Prehistoric Origins of Modern Sexuality, HarperCollins, USA, 2010, pp. 7-9.
59 A. Graziottin, ‘Libido: the biologic scenario’, Maturitas, vol. 34(1), January 2000, pp. S9-S16.
60 C. Dell’Amore, ‘Women’s Tears Reduce Sex Drive in Men, Study Hints: Scent of a woman crying may also reduce aggression’ in National Geographic News, 6 January 2011, Internet, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/01/110106-womens-tears-sex-drive-turn-off-sexual-health-arousal-men-science/, (30 June 2014).
61 R. F. Curtis, J. A. Ballantine, E. B. Keverne, R. W. Bonsall, R. P. Michael, ‘Biological Sciences: Identification of Primate Sexual Pheromones and the Properties of Synthetic Attractants’, Nature, vol. 232, 6 August 1971, pp. 396-398.
62 I. P. Pavlov, Conditioned Reflexes, Dover Publications, New York, 2003, pp. 33-47.
64 J. Wolpe, ‘Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition’, Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, vol. 3(4), pp. 243-240.
65 E. Y. Karten, ‘Sexual reorientation efforts in dissatisfied same-sex attracted men: What does it really take to change?’ in ETD Collection for Fordham University, January 2006, Internet, http://fordham.bepress.com/dissertations/AAI3201129, (30 June 2014).
66 J. Nicolosi, Reparative therapy of male homosexuality: A new clinical approach, Jason Aronson, Lanham, 1991.
67 D. J. Carlat, C. A. Camargo, D. B. Herzog, ‘Eating Disorders in Males: A Report on 135 Patients’, Internet, http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Obsessive-_Eating_Disorders_in_Males__A_Report_on_135_Patients.pdf, (30 June 2014).
68 M. B. Feldman, I. H. Meyer, ‘Eating Disorders in Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations’, Int J Eat Disord, vol. 40(3), April 2007, pp. 218-226.
69 P. Quatresooz, L. Thirion, C. Piérard-Franchimont, G. E. Piérard, ‘The riddle of genuine skin microrelief and wrinkles’, International Journal of Cosmetic Science, vol. 28(6), December 2006, pp. 389-395.
70 M. Nwandison, S. Bewley, ‘What is the right age to reproduce?’, Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review, vol. 17(3), 2006, pp 185-204.
71 D. Gable, ‘Is There a Perfect Age for Pregnancy?’ in babyzone, Internet, http://www.babyzone.com/pregnancy/health_wellness/pregnancy_over_35/article/perfect-age-pregnancy, (30 June 2014).
72 W. H. Masters, V. E. Johnson, Homosexuality in Perspective, Bantam Books, New York, 1979, p. 178.
73 M. B. Donnellan, K. H. Trzesniewski, R. W. Robins, T. E. Moffitt, A. Caspi, ‘Low Self-Esteem Is Related to Aggression, Antisocial Behavior, and Delinquency’, Psychological Science, vol. 16(4), April 2005, pp. 328-335.
74 A. P. Haas, M. Eliason, V. M. Mays, R. M. Mathy, S. D. Cochran, A. R. D’Augelli, M. M. Silverman, P. W. Fisher, T. Hughes, M. Rosario, S. T. Russell, E. Malley, J. Reed, D. A. Litts, E. Haller, R. L. Sell, G. Remafedi, J. Bradford, A. L. Beautrais, G. K. Brown, G. M. Diamond, M. S. Friedman, R. Garofalo, M. S. Turner, A. Hollibaugh, P. J. Clayton, ‘Suicide and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Review and Recommendations’, Journal of Homosexuality, vol. 58(1), 2010, pp. 10-51.
75 U. Hintikka, M. Marttunen, M. Pelkonen, E. Laukkanen, H. Viinamäki, J. Lehtonen, ‘Improvement in cognitive and psychosocial functioning and self image among adolescent inpatient suicide attempters’ in BMC Psychiatry, BioMed Central, December 2006, Internet, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1769486/, (30 June 2014).
76 E. Holland, The Nature of Homosexuality: Vindication for Homosexual Activists and the Religious Right, iUniverse Inc., USA, 2004, p. 385.
77 F. Tamagne, A history of homosexuality in Europe: Berlin, London, Paris, 1919-1939, Volume I & II, Algora Publishing, USA, 2006, p.390.
78 K. A. Cuordileone, Manhood and American political culture in the Cold War, Routledge, New York, 2005, p. 71.
79 J. A. Harvey, J. D. Robinson, ‘Eating Disorders in Men: Current Considerations’, Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, vol. 10(4), December 2003, pp. 297-306.
80 S. Reaves, J. B. Hitchon, S.-Y. Park, G. W. Yun, ‘If Looks Could Kill: Digital Manipulation of Fashion Models’, Journal of Mass Media Ethics, vol. 19(1), 2004, pp. 56-71.